Consult Now Alcoholism is a chronic, often progressive disease that can be fatal. The condition involves a preoccupation with alcohol and impaired control over alcohol intake. Alcoholism usually involves physical dependence on the drug alcohol, but genetic, psychological and social factors contribute to this addiction.
Alopecia / Hair Loss
Consult Now Baldness typically refers to excessive hair loss from your scalp and can be the result of heredity, certain medications or an underlying medical condition. Anyone — men, women and children — can experience hair loss.
The medical term for hair loss is alopecia. The most common type is pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia). It accounts for about 95 percent of hair loss from the scalp. It’s typically permanent and can be attributed to heredity. Another type of alopecia, alopecia areata, can be temporary. It can involve hair loss on your scalp or your body. Its specific cause is unknown.

Causes of Alopecia (Hair Loss):
• Genetic predisposition: Genes from our parents influence our tendency to have male or female pattern baldness.
• Severe illness.
• Iron deficiency.
• Following child birth.
• Extreme stress.
• General anesthesia.
• High fever and typhoid.
• Thyroid dysfunction.
• Hormonal imbalance.
• Medical treatments like chemotherapy used in cancer, anticoagulants, beta-adrenergic blockers used to control blood pressure, oral contraceptives and retinoids used in treatment of acne and skin diseases.
• Burns.
• X-rays.
• scalp injuries.
• Chemicals used in products to dye hair, bleach, perm hair, purify swimming pools.

Home Remedies and Alopecia (Hair Loss):
• Shampoos and conditioners do not treat baldness but overusing them actually causes dryness of scalp and hair. All shampoos are just scented detergents with lathering agent; even the ones which are called natural, herbal or vitamin enhanced. One should not shampoo every day because they dry up the natural oil of the hair which is very important. Washing hair twice a week is more than enough. Also dilute the shampoo before using because they are too concentrated. Shampoos and conditioners just clean the hair and nothing more; they do not treat alopecia or baldness.
• Proper brushing is very important as it distribute the hair’s natural oil. It would do more for the long-term health of your hair and scalp than wasting money on haircare products. Start with 10 to 20 strokes a day and try to work up to 100. Be gentle and avoid brushing when your hair are wet.
• Yoga helps in relaxation of stress which may be a factor in some cases of hair loss.
• A balanced diet including fruits and vegetables should be a norm.
• Try to avoid hot curlers, hair dryers, hair straightening, bleaches and cosmetics filled with chemicals eventually result in broken, dry and thinning of hair. People who leave their hair in natural texture and color are better off. Why put stress on your in pursuit of beauty.

Herbal Treatment for Alopecia (Hair Loss):
• Massage your hair with essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).
• Rinse your hair with tea made from sage (Salvia officinalis).

Anorexia nervosa
Consult Now Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder affecting mainly girls or women, although boys or men can also suffer from it. It usually starts in the teenage years.
The cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown, although it is likely that both inherent biological factors and factors in the patient’s social environment play a part. The disease is mainly encountered in the western world and is more common among women in certain professions, such as models and ballet dancers. Puberty, deaths in the family and other life stresses are all believed to be potential triggers of anorexia.

Anorexia Nervosa 2

General information: Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder in which a person refuses to eat adequately, in spite of hunger and they lose enough weight to become emaciated. The illness usually begins with a normal weight – loss diet. The person eats very little, and refuses to stop dieting after a reasonable weight loss. People most affected are female adolescents and young adults.
Causative factors: Unknown. However, all patients have family and internal conflicts, including sexual conflicts. Increased risk from peer pressure to be thin. History of slight overweight. Perfectionists, compulsive or overachieving personalities. Psychological stress.
Signs and symptoms: Weight loss of at least 25% of body weight without physical illness. High energy level despite body wasting. Intense fear of obesity. Depression, Appetite loss, Constipation, Cold intolerance, Refusal to maintain a minimum standard weight for age and height. Distorted body image. The person continues to feel fat – even when emaciated. Cessation of menstrual periods.

Anthrax is a disease of domestic animals which become infected by inhaling or ingesting spores of Bacillus anthracis. In man anthrax is an occupational disease of farmers, butchers, and dealers in hides, hair, wool, and bone meal from endemic areas. Now a days there is fear and possibility of virulent anthrax spores being used as a means of bio-terrorism.

Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Anthrax

Skin infection: Inoculation of spores subcutaneously is the commonest mode of spread, Incubation period is usually 1 to 3 days.
A cutaneous lesion begins as an itching papule which enlarges and forms a vesicle filled with serosanguineous fluid surrounded by gross edema – the ‘malignant pustule’. The lesion is relatively painless and accompanied by slight enlargement of regional lymph nodes. The vesicle dries to form a thick black aschar surrounded by blebs.
In endemic areas patients may exhibit only slight constitutional symptoms and little edema but in the non-immune person high fever, toxemia and fatal septicemia may develop.

Ingestion: When infected meat is eaten an ulcer with surrounding edema may develop in the throat. But often the infection causes a severe, fatal gastroenteritis.

Inhalation: Spread through inhalation is not very common except in people working with animal hide and dander. But this is the way which is potentially most harmful and is the only way in which mass infection can be caused by terrorists. Such infection can lead to an acute laryngitis or a virulent hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia (wool-sorter’s disease)

Occasionally anthrax may present as meningitis.

Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of Backache

Lumbago is defined as mild to severe pain or discomfort in the area of the lower back. The pain can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic if it has lasted more than three months. Lumbago often occurs in younger people whose work involves physical effort and is not uncommon in people of retirement age.
In the majority of cases, it is impossible to identify the exact cause of backache. In about 25 per cent of cases, however, it is possible to identify the cause. Often, these patients are suffering from conditions like a slipped disc, osteoporosis (brittle bones), deformation of natural spine curvature (scoliosis) or more rarely, skeletal damage due to tumours or infection. Muscle spasm produced by faulty posture, injury or strain can itself cause pain.

Back Injuries
Consult Now Who hasn’t injured their back? OK, you lucky people go sit in the corner. I remember one time, for absolutely no reason, I fell over backwards and landed on a mike stand, as improbable as that sounds, on my tail bone, with nothing to break my fall, and let me tell you, I was out of commission for at least a week; unable to lift anything or bend forward…if only I had known about homeopathy then, I could have taken Hypericum and moved on! Yes, homeopathy really is that amazing! So, what are the remedies for back injuries? Let’s start with…
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Consult Now This is also known as the ‘post viral syndrome’ or ‘myalgic enchphalomylitis;. This is a syndrome in which person suffering from an acute illness never seems to recover fully from it. Even after the acute illness is over, the patient does not feel well and complains of malaise, fatigue, myalgia, headache, and exhaustion.

Signs & Symptoms of Chronic Fatigua Syndrome

• The most pronounced symptom is ‘fatigue’. the person always feels very tired, sometimes so much that even going from one room to other may seem like a chore.
• Myalgia or body ache
• General malaise and headache

Debility / Fatigue
Drooling / Excess Salivation / Sialorrhoea
Consult Now What do you mean by drooling?
Saliva is flowing outside the mouth known as drooling. It is generally caused by excessive production of saliva, inability to retain or swallow.
It can be defined as salivary incontinence or the spillage of saliva over the lower lip. It reflects a disturbance of the oral phase of deglutition which is associated with inefficient, uncoordinated swallowing and poorly synchronized lip closure. It is frequently associated with an abnormal increase in tone of the muscles that open the mouth. Drooling patients have difficulty managing normal salivary flow; sialorrhea, increase in salivary flow which can lead to drooling. Drooling itself is a symptom not a disease.

Saliva is the watery and usually a frothy substance produced in mouth; which is secreted by salivary gland. It is stimulated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Approximately 700ml/ day saliva produced. It contains 98% water and electrolyte, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. The functions of saliva include lubrication and moistening of food in order to facilitate mastication, protection of the mucosa from desiccation, prevention of dental caries, and a medium by which lysozyme, secretary IgA and salivary peroxidase are delivered to the oral cavity

Consult Now Dropsy is swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue. Edema, or dropsy as it is sometimes known, is swelling due to an infiltration of fluid into the tissues. If it occurs in one specific area, it can cause the nearby skin to become taut and shiny, and the muscles become achy. A noticeable weight gain of several pounds can occur. Edema is most common around the feet and ankles, however bloating from fluid retention usually affects the whole body.
Eating Disorders
Consult Now A rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection. A fever occurs when your temperature rises above its normal range. What’s normal for you may be a little higher or lower than the average temperature of 98.6 F. That’s why it’s hard to say just what a fever is. But a “significant” fever is usually defined as an oral or ear temperature of 102 F or a rectal temperature of 103 F. If you’re an adult, a fever may be uncomfortable, but it usually isn’t dangerous unless it rises above 103 F. For very young children and infants, however, even slightly elevated temperatures may indicate a serious infection.

Causes of Fever: Infections are the most common causes of fevers. But there is a long list of other causes, which includes acute bronchitis, AIDS and HIV infection, autoimmune disorders, cancer, colds or flu-like illnesses, collagen vascular disease, rheumatoid diseases, ear infections, Hodgkin’s disease, infectious mononucleosis, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia, medications (such as antibiotics, antihistamines, barbiturates, and drugs for high blood pressure), neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pneumonia, appendicitis, tuberculosis, and meningitis, periarteritis nodosa, regional enteritis, sore throats, strep throat, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis, upper respiratory infections (such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis or laryngitis), urinary tract infections, viral and bacterial infections, viral gastroenteritis or bacterial gastroenteritis.

Mechanism of Fever: Body temperature is set by the hypothalamus, which is situated at the base of the brain. It acts as a thermostat for the whole system. When something’s wrong, the normal temperature is simply set a few points higher. The feeling of chilliness and shivering may start when the body tries to elevate its temperature. This phenomenon is to generate heat. Profuse sweating may be felt when the temperature begins to return to normal. This mechanism helps to dissipate the excess heat.

Symptoms of Fever
Apart from the high temperature, symptoms like sweating, shivering, headache, muscle aches, lack of appetite, dehydration and general weakness may present, depending upon the cause of the fever. Very high fevers between the temperatures 103° and 106°F may produce hallucinations, confusion, irritability and convulsions.

Frozen Shoulder
Consult Now Frozen shoulder is a disorder in which the shoulder capsule, the connective tissue of the shoulder, becomes inflamed and stiff, and grows together with abnormal bands of tissue, called adhesions, greatly restricting motion and causing chronic pain.
Movement of the shoulder is severely restricted. Pain is usually constant, worse at night, when the weather is colder. This condition can last from five months to three years or more and is thought in some cases to be caused by injury or trauma to the area. It is believed that it may have an autoimmune component, with the body attacking healthy tissue in the shoulder. The condition may also cause chronic inflammation. Adhesions grow between the joints and tissue, greatly restricting motion and causing a number of painful complications. There is also a lack of fluid in the joint, further restricting movement.
Frozen shoulder is characterized by pain and loss of motion or stiffness in the shoulder. The recovery is very slow.

Etiology of Frozen Shoulder
• Exact cause is unknown.
• There may be autoimmune etiology.
• History of trauma to joint may be present.
• Hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormones).
• Diabetes.
• Heart/ circulatory diseases.
• A fracture or other arm injury.
• Shoulder injury/ surgery.
• Cervical disk disease.
• Degenerative arthritis.


• Onset: insidious.
• Pain in shoulder, upper arm.
• severe aching pain.
• Restricted shoulder movement.
• Difficulty in routine activities, e.g. combing hairs, wearing shirts.
Lifting any thing.
Raising the arm


• Uniform impairment of all shoulder movements.
• Restricted flexion, extension, abduction, circumduction.

Consult Now Cause, Symptoms, Treatment for Headache & Migraine Headache
A headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. Serious causes of headaches are extremely rare. Most people with headaches can feel much better by making lifestyle changes, learning ways to relax, and occasionally by taking medications.

Causes of Headache: The most common headaches are probably caused by tight, contracted muscles in the shoulders, neck, scalp, and jaw. These are called tension headaches. They are often related to stress, depression, or anxiety. Overworking, not getting enough sleep, missing meals, and using alcohol or street drugs can make more susceptible to them. Headaches can be triggered by chocolate, cheese, and monosodium glutamate (MSG). People who drink caffeine can have headaches when they don’t get their usual daily amount.
Other common causes include: (i) Holding the head in one position for a long time, like at a computer, microscope, or typewriter. (ii) Poor sleep position. (iii) Overexertion (iv) Clenching or grinding the teeth. (v) Tension headaches tend to be on both sides of the head. They often start at the back of head and spread forward. The pain may feel dull or squeezing, like a tight band or vice. Shoulders, neck, or jaw may feel tight and sore. The pain is usually persistent, but does not get worse with activity.
Rare causes of headache include: (i) Brain aneurysm — a weakening of the wall of a blood vessel that can rupture and bleed into the brain. (ii) Brain tumor. (iii) Stroke. (iv) Brain infection like meningitis or encephalitis.

Migraine Headache: Migraine headaches are severe headaches that usually occur with other symptoms such as visual disturbances or nausea. The pain may be described as throbbing, pounding, or pulsating. It tends to begin on one side of the head, although it may spread to both sides. There may be an “aura” (a group of warning symptoms that start before your headache). The pain usually gets worse when the person tries to move around.

Other types of headaches: Sinus headaches cause pain in the front of the head and face. They are due to inflammation in the sinus passages that lie behind the cheeks, nose, and eyes. The pain tends to be worse when you bend forward and when you first wake up in the morning. Postnasal drip, sore throat, and nasal discharge usually occur with these headaches.
Headaches may associate cold, flu, fever, or premenstrual syndrome.

Prevention of Headache
The following healthy habits can lessen stress and reduce the chance of getting headaches:
* Getting adequate sleep
* Eating a healthy diet
* Exercising regularly
* Stretching the neck and upper body, especially if the work involves typing or using a computer
* Learning proper posture
* Quitting smoking
* Learning to relax using meditation, deep breathing, yoga, or other techniques
* Wearing proper eyeglasses, if needed .

Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke
Consult Now Exposure to excessive heat can cause loss of body fluids and a rise in body temperature. It can occur due to prolonged exposure to high atmospheric temperature or a brief exposure to very high atmospheric temperature (direct exposure to sun is not necessary) or due to heavy manual work in high temperature, high humidity. Pre-existing chronic diseases and alcoholism are some of the predisposing factors.
This is an abnormal condition marked by weakness, dizziness, nausea, muscle cramps, and fainting. It is caused by low levels of body fluid and salts resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to adjust to heat. Body temperature is near normal; blood pressure may drop but usually returns to normal as the person is placed in a lying-down position; the skin is cool, damp, and pale. The patient IS dehydrated.
Heat Stroke
Failure of the body to regulate its temperature. This is caused by prolonged exposure to the sun or to high temperatures. Lessening or lack of sweating is an early symptom. Body temperature of 105 degree Fahrenheit or higher, fast pulse rate, hot and dry skin, headache, confusion, blackouts, and convulsions may occur. The patient may have fluid and body sodium depletion as seen in classic heat exhaustion.

What are the Symptoms?
After prolonged exposure to hot conditions, the following symptoms of heat exhaustion may develop:
1. Profuse Sweating
2. Fatigue
3. Muscle cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Faintness and unsteadiness
6. Headache
If exposure to heat continues, the body temperature rises and heatstroke may develop, causing symptoms such as:
1. Cessation of sweating
2. Body temperature of 105 degree Fahrenheit or higher
3. Rapid and shallow breathing
4. Rapid heartbeat
5. Elevated or lowered blood pressure
6. Confusion and disorientation
7. Seizure
8. Fainting, which may be the first sign in older adults
Left untreated, heat stroke may progress to coma. Death may result due to kidney failure, acute heart failure, or direct heat induced damage to the brain.

First AD for any heat illness
Move patient to a cool or shaded area.
Remove clothing.
Patient should be lying down with feet elevated, if possible.
Fan patient and sponge skin with cool water.
Provide cool fluids to drink (water is best)–only if the patient is alert!
Contact emergency transport crew.

Hypothermia / Frostbite
Consult Now Stocking the First-Aid Kit with Remedies for Winter Exposure
Winter weather can vary dramatically, day by day. It is not uncommon for one day to be warm and unseasonably sunny, so that everyone goes out with the lightest clothing; only to be followed by an extreme swing of temperature to the coldest, below-zero depths.
Some of the most common and dangerous winter complaints are Frostbite and Hypothermia: While everyone knows that dressing warmly is a priority in cold temperatures, there are instances where we don’t often dress as we should, particularly if the weather is prone to sudden changes.

Hypothermia is the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature. It can come on very slowly, making it difficult to notice that its happening. When the body becomes extraordinarily cold, all the systems begin to slow down – eventually to the point where death can result. Sometimes, hypothermia can actually save lives, especially where the body shuts down heart and brain function in order to limit the oxygen the body needs so that it can stay alive.

Symptoms of Hypothermia: What to Look For
When the body is cold, it tries to generate heat by shivering – it’s trying to warm itself. When hypothermia sets in, the shivering stops, as the body is now trying to conserve all the energy it can. This is one of the first warning signs of hypothermia.
An irregular heartbeat which takes place when breathing slows down. Frostbite and hypothermia can set in in minutes, if the temperature is extremely cold.
Mild frostbite or “frostnip” makes the skin look pale or waxy, but the colour returns once the skin is warm again. Severe frostbite begins with white or waxy looking skin, but as the damage progresses the colour becomes bluish, or grey. The cold feeling is replaced with numbness, and blisters often form on the surface of the extremity. Trauma injuries can result: a frozen finger can easily break in a fall; a frozen foot can suffer broken bones if walked on. Blisters can burst if they are placed under the pressure of a step, or inadvertently made to rub against the inside of a boot.

Frostbitten skin will burn if it is not warmed up properly, so this is no time to forget the Law of Similars: warm the frostbitten skin with cold water or snow until circulation is restored to the area—do not try to use warm or hot water for this purpose as permanent tissue damage will result. Keep in mind that as the body part warms up, the affected area may swell, itch, burn, or cramp painfully .In cases of extreme frostbite, the skin will turn black; gangrene may set in, and amputation may be necessary.

Intermittent Fever
Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of Intermittent Fever

Intermittent Fever is usually a sign of Malaria but Fever with Shivering and Chill can also be found in Viral Fevers, Urinary Tract Infections, Septecemia.
Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The disease causes fever, chills, headache and muscle aches.

Consult Now Intertrigo is an inflammatory condition of skin folds, induced or aggravated by heat, moisture, maceration, friction, and lack of air circulation.
An intertrigo appears in the areas of the inner thighs and genitalia, the armpits, under the breasts, the underside of the belly, behind the ears, and the web spaces between the toes and fingers. An intertrigo usually appears red and raw-looking, and may also itch, ooze, and be sore. Intertrigos occur more often among overweight individuals, those with diabetes, and those who use medical devices, like artificial limbs, that trap moisture against the skin.

Clinical Feture Onset
• Insidious.

• Itching.
• Mild burning.

• Starts as superficial redness.
• Maceration.
• Cracks or fissures.
• Covered with honey coloured crusts.
• Removal of crust causes bleeding.
• Offensive odour from affected parts.
• Correct underlying cause.
• Keep affected area clean, dry.
• Good nutritious diet.

Consult Now A keloid is a type of hypertrophic scar which results in an overgrowth of tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. Keloids are firm, rubbery lesions or shiny, fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to flesh-colored or red to dark brown in color. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin.
A keloid, sometimes referred to as a keloid scar, is a tough heaped-up scar that rises quite abruptly above the rest of the skin. It usually has a smooth top. Keloids are irregularly shaped and tend to enlarge progressively. Unlike scars, keloids do not subside over time.

• Mosquito bite.
• Trauma.
• Scratching.
• Friction.
• Pressure.
• Brushing.

• 10-30 years.

• Common in females.

• Common in blacks.

Clinical Feture Location
• Chest, upper arms, back, sides of neck, ears.

• Asymptomatic.
• Itching and pain.

• Starts as nodules or plaque.
• Gradually enlarging.
• Elevated.
• Firm consistency.
• Actively growing is red and itchy.
• Stable, long standing is dark brown.
• Irregular margins, with claw like extensions.

• Cosmetic disfigurement.
• May undergo malignant degeneration.
General Managent
In subjects predisposed to formation of keloids:
• Avoid any kind of trauma.
• If surgery is essential, incision should be minimal.
• Avoid injections and ear pricking.

Consult Now Neuralgia is defined as an intense burning or stabbing pain caused by irritation of or damage to a nerve. The pain is usually brief but may be severe. It often feels as if it is shooting along the course of the affected nerve.

Different types of neuralgia occur depending on the reason the nerve has been irritated. Neuralgia can be triggered by a variety of causes, including tooth decay, eye strain, or shingles (an infection caused by the herpes zoster virus). Pain is usually felt in the part of the body that is supplied by the irritated nerve.

Consult Now Neuritis is a complex process involving inflammation of the nerves, resulting in irritation that interferes with normal nerve function and the areas served. Specifically, it affects the peripheral nerves (those outside the brain, spinal cord, or central nervous system), blocking sensory and motor functions, with pronounced symptoms.
Obesity / Overweight
Consult Now Obesity is the nominal form of obese which comes from the Latin obesus, which means “stout, fat, or plump.” Esus is the past participle of edere (to eat), with ob added to it.
Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissues of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality.
Obesity is both an individual clinical condition and is increasingly viewed as a serious public health problem. Excessive body weight has been shown to predispose people to various diseases.
Being obese and being overweight is not exactly the same thing. An obese person has a large amount of extra body fat, not just a few extra pounds. People who are obese are very overweight and at risk for serious health problems.

Obesity is typically evaluated by measuring BMI (Body mass index), waist circumference and risk factor evaluation.

Body mass index is the most simple and useful index to estimate body fat. It is calculated as follows:

BMI = Weight in Kilograms / Square of height in meters.

So BMI = Kg / square ms.
or BMI = Weight (lbs) * 703 / height (inches)2
BMI is indexed as follows for reference:

BMI < 18.5 = Underweight BMI 18.5 – 24.9 = Normal weight BMI 25 – 29.9 = Overweight BMI 30 – 39.9 = Obese BMI > 40 = Severely obese
Waist circumference

With day to day advancements and better understanding, it has become clear that visceral fat or central obesity (male type or apple type obesity) has a stronger relation with cardio-vascular diseases. BMI does not take into account the adipose and lean ratios.

The absolute waist circumference ( > 102 cm in men and > 88 in women) or waist – hip ratio (>0.9 for men and >0.85 for women) are a measure of central obesity.

Body fat measurement
It is considered that men with more then 25% and women with 30% more body fat are obese. For the correct assessment, either skin fold thickness test or under water weighing could be done.
Other measurements could be done by CT or MRI.

Causes of Obesity


When food energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, fat cells (and also to some extent muscle and liver cells) throughout the body take in the energy and store it as fat. So when the energy consumption exceeds the requirement, it causes obesity.
Additional factors causing obesity
Genetic disorders
Underlying illness (such as hypothyroidism)
Eating disorders (such as Binge eating disorder)
Certain medications (such as anti-psycotics)
Sedentary lifestyle
A high glycemic diet
Insufficient sleep
Sudden smoking cessation
Weight cycling – repeated attempts to do dieting to lose weight
Obesity Statistics
Since the mid-seventies, the prevalence of being overweight and of obesity in United States have increased sharply for both adults and children. Data from two NHANES surveys show that among adults aged 20–74 years the prevalence of obesity increased from 15.0% (in the 1976–1980 survey) to 32.9% (in the 2003–2004 survey). The global average stands at 14.1% with United States of America, Mexico, United Kingdom, Slovakia, Greece, Australia, New Zealand, Hungary, Luxembourg, Czech Republic standing out as the most obese nations.
The two surveys also show increase in weight among children and teens. For children aged 2–5 years, the prevalence of being overweight increased from 5.0% to 13.9%; for those aged 6–11 years, prevalence increased from 6.5% to 18.8%; and for those aged 12–19 years, prevalence increased from 5.0% to 17.4%.
These increasing rates raise concern because of their implications for Americans’ health. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of many diseases and health conditions, including the following:
* Hypertension
* Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)
* Type 2 diabetes
* Coronary heart disease
* Stroke
* Gallbladder disease
* Osteoarthritis
* Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
* Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
American Obesity Rates have reached epidemic proportions.
* 58 Million overweight; 40 Million Obese; 3 million morbidly obese.
* Eight out of 10 people over the age of 25 are overweight.
* 78% of American’s not meeting basic activity level recommendations.
* 76% increase in Type II diabetes in adults 30-40 yrs old since 1990.

Types of Obesity
The fat distribution in the body is identified among the two types of obesity android & gynoid.

Android: Android type of obesity is likened to the shape of an apple. The shoulders, face, arms, neck, chest & upper portion of the abdomen are bloated. The stomach gives a stiff appearance, as well as the arms, shoulders and breasts. The back seems to be erect but the neck is compressed and there will be a protruding chest because of the bulk in the stomach. The lower portion of the body — the hips, thighs and legs are thinner beyond proportion in comparison with the upper part. In these persons the vital organs affected will be mostly the heart, liver, kidneys & lungs. Though this type of obesity is found more in males it is common in females too. Those females, who are under hormone treatment for their menstrual abnormalities or after childbirth, are more prone to this type of obesity. It occurs in females around menopause too due to thyroid gland’s functional disturbance. In this type, the excess flesh is less likely to reduce especially in female than males. Android type of obesity is a major risk for heart damage and heart disease due to high cholesterol.

Gynoid: In this type the lower part of the body has the extra flesh. This type of obesity is also common to both sexes though females are more affected. Gynoid type of obesity is similar to pears. The flesh is somewhat flabby in the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and legs. The face and neck mostly give a normal appearance. In some persons, the cheeks may be drawn too. As these persons grow old the whole figure assumes a stooping posture and the spine is never erect due to the heavy hips and thighs. This vital organs affected mostly are the kidneys, uterus, intestines, bladder & bowels. But the functions of these organs some times have a direct effect on the heart. In this type of obesity, exercises or dieting will not help appreciably in reducing weight.

The third type: Besides android and gynoid, there is one more type of obesity. Some people do not belong to any of the above type of obesity. Their whole body from head to toe looks like a barrel. Their gait is more to rolling rather than walking. The fat tissues in their body hinder the movement of all the internal organs and consequently affect their brisk functioning. For them any exercise is difficult due to the enormous size of the body. So such person should follow a strict diet and do plenty of exercise.
How Can You Avoid Becoming Overweight or Obese?
The best way to avoid these health problems is to maintain a healthy weight. And the keys to healthy weight are regular exercise and good eating habits.
To stay active, try to exercise 30 to 60 minutes every day. Your exercise doesn’t have to be hard. Walking, swimming, and stretching are all good ways to burn calories and can help you stay fit. Try these activities to get moving:
Go outside for a walk.
Take the stairs instead of the elevator.
Walk or bike to places (such as school or a friend’s house) instead of driving.
If you have to drive somewhere, park farther away than you need to and walk the extra distance.
Tackle those household chores, such as vacuuming, washing the car, or cleaning the bathroom – they all burn calories.
Alternate activities so you don’t get bored: Try running, biking, skating.
Limit your time watching TV or playing video games; even reading a book burns more energy.
Go dancing — it can burn more than 300 calories an hour!
Eating well doesn’t mean dieting over and over again to lose a few pounds. Instead, try to make healthy choices every day.
Soft drinks, fruit juices, and sports drinks are loaded with sugar; drink fat-free or low-fat milk or water instead.
Eat ample amount of fruit and vegetables every day.
Eat a healthy breakfast every day.
Don’t eat meals or snacks while watching TV because you’ll probably end up eating more than you intend to.
Pay attention to the portion sizes of what you eat.
If you want a snack, try carrot sticks, a piece of fruit, or a piece of whole-grain toast instead of processed foods like chips and crackers, which can be loaded with fat and calories.
Eat when you’re hungry, not when you’re bored or because you can’t think of anything else to do.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Consult Now OCD is an anxiety disorder & characterised by obsessive thoughts which are recurrent, unwanted & usually anxiety-provoking, & by compulsions, repeated acts which relieve feelings of tension.
Example:Repeated hand-washing because of recurrent thoughts of contamination.
Cause of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
OCD is widely accepted to result from genetic vulnerability &/or chemical changes in some area of brain.

The precise pathology is not completely understood.
According to psychological school – obsessions are considered anxiogenic. OCD patients cannot escape this anxiety & therefore develop compulsion in an attempt to reduce or prevent the feared consequences. Reduction of anxiety reinforces the compulsive behaviour.

Symptoms of OCD:
Arise acutely or insidiously.
Obsessions: Are frequent & persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are normally experienced as intrusive & senseless. They are usually accompanied by marked anxiety.
Common obsessions are- contamination, aggression & sexual or religious ruminations.
Compulsions: Are repetitive behaviours; e.g. hand washing, checking, ordering, or mental acts (e.g. counting, repeating words silently)

DIAGNOSIS: Clinically
Differential diagnosis:
1) Obsessive compulsive personality.
2) Depressive disorders.
3) Phobic disorders.
4) Generalised anxiety disorders.
5) Post-traumatic stress disorders.
6) Tic disorders.
7) Anorexia nervosa.

Management of OCD:
Cognitive behaviour therapy- The main approach in OCD is graded exposure & self-imposed response prevention. This requires patients to face their feared obsessions without undoing them with their compulsions. Exposure should be of sufficient duration to be effective.

Ptyalism / Salivation
Consult Now What do you mean by drooling?
Saliva is flowing outside the mouth known as drooling. It is generally caused by excessive production of saliva, inability to retain or swallow.
It can be defined as salivary incontinence or the spillage of saliva over the lower lip. It reflects a disturbance of the oral phase of deglutition which is associated with inefficient, uncoordinated swallowing and poorly synchronized lip closure. It is frequently associated with an abnormal increase in tone of the muscles that open the mouth. Drooling patients have difficulty managing normal salivary flow; sialorrhea, increase in salivary flow which can lead to drooling. Drooling itself is a symptom not a disease.

Saliva is the watery and usually a frothy substance produced in mouth; which is secreted by salivary gland. It is stimulated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Approximately 700ml/ day saliva produced. It contains 98% water and electrolyte, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes. The functions of saliva include lubrication and moistening of food in order to facilitate mastication, protection of the mucosa from desiccation, prevention of dental caries, and a medium by which lysozyme, secretary IgA and salivary peroxidase are delivered to the oral cavity.
What causes drooling?

In infants and toddlers it may be normal and is unlikely to be a sign of either disease or any complications, it may be associated with teething.

It may be exacerbated by upper respiratory infections and nasal allergies

If it is associate with fever or trouble in swallowing may be sign of retropharyngeal abscess, peritonsillar abcesses, tonsillitis, Mononucleosis, sore throat, parkinson’s disease.

Sudden onset of drooling indicates poisoning, reaction to snake or insect venom.
Conditions where saliva secretion is increased; Stomatitis, Chronic gastritis, Pregnancy, Maniacs, Hydrophobia, Drugs -mercury, iodide, bitters, Sinemet, Sinemet CR, Lodosyn, Levodopa, Dopar, etc.

Excessive capsaicin can cause drooling.
Drooling may be one symptoms of following disease; Alzheimer’s Disease, Ataxia Telangiectasia, Bell’s Palsy, Cyclic vomiting syndrome, Epiglotitis, Epiglottis diseases, Grand mal seizures, Homocystinuria, Motion sickness, Rabies, Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome, Sjogren’s Syndrome, Wilson’s Disease, etc.
Conventional Treatment for Drooling:
Treatment of drooling must be according to the medical cause; generally Atropine sulfate is given for drooling.

Scarlet Fever
Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a rash accompanied by a sore throat caused by the streptococcus bacteria. The disease most commonly affects children, but can occur in any age group. The characteristic symptoms are a rash and a ‘strawberry tongue’.
The rash of scarlet fever usually begins like a bad sunburn with tiny bumps (papules), and it may itch. The rash usually appears first on the neck and face, often leaving a clear unaffected area around the mouth. It spreads to the chest and back, then to the rest of the body. In body creases, especially around the underarms and elbows, the rash forms classic red streaks called Pastia’s lines. Areas of rash usually blanch (turn white) when you press on them. By the sixth day of a strep infection the rash usually fades, but the affected skin may begin to peel.

Children with strep throat infections also commonly have: chills, body aches, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.

Sea Sickness
Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of sickness

This is a form of motion sickness caused by erratic stimulation to the brain from the sensory receptors. This is prompted by constantly changing movement. Mal de Mer is a rather pleasant and unassuming French term for the debilitating effect motion sickness may have on your body.

Symptoms generally consist of dizziness, fatigue, and nausea, which may progress to vomiting.

Motion sickness is a very common disturbance of the inner ear that is caused by repeated motion such as from the swell of the sea, the movement of a car, the motion of a plane in turbulent air, etc. In the inner ear (which is also called the labyrinth), motion sickness affects the sense of balance and equilibrium and, hence, the sense of spatial orientation.

Consult Now Septicemia is a potentially life-threatening infection in which large amounts of bacteria are present in the blood. It is commonly referred to as blood poisoning.
Septicemia usually arises as a result of localised infection in the body. The primary site of infection may occur in the respiratory system, the skin, the gastrointestinal system or the genitourinary system. It may coincide with very aggressive infections such as meningitis.
Bacteria usually spill over from the primary infection site into the blood and are carried throughout the body thereby spreading infection to various systems of the body.

Signs & Symptoms of Septicemia
The affected person may have symptoms of the associated condition that triggered the septicemia such as symptoms of pneumonia or severe urinary infection.
The condition usually begins with fever and chills. Drenching sweats may occur. The heart rate and respiratory rate (number of breaths per minute) rise in association with the rising fever. The affected individual will feel very ill indeed with profound feelings of weakness.

As the condition evolves the person may begin to feel very cold and clammy. The blood pressure starts to fall and the person may lapse into unconsciousness.
The skin becomes very pale and the person may exhibit petechiae. Petechiae are tiny spots on the skin, which do not blanch when a glass tumbler is applied to the skin.

Consult Now Sunstrock (Heatstroke; Insolation; Thermic Fever; Siriasis), a term applied to the effects produced upon the central nervous system, and through it upon other organs of the body, by exposure to the sun or to overheated air.

Sunstroke is a life-threatening condition in which the body’s heat-regulating system fails, due to exposure to high temperatures.

Sunstroke can occur when the body’s mechanisms to rid itself of excess heat are overwhelmed by a very hot or humid environment, or strenuous physical activity.
People particularly susceptible to sunstroke are young children, the elderly, individuals not used to physical activity and concomitant excessive sun exposure (such as overseas visitors walking in the mountains in Africa), people suffering from certain chronic medical conditions, and those involved in certain sporting activities.
Symptoms of sunstroke: include elevated body temperature; hot, dry skin; hyperventilation; mental confusion; and eventual unconsciousness.
The primary treatment goal for sunstroke is to lower the elevated body temperature rapidly in a controlled fashion.

Sunstroke can be prevented by drinking plenty of water and avoiding overtaxing the body in hot weather and while exercising.

Tumors / cancer
Consult Now Nausea is the sensation of having an urge to vomit. Vomiting is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.
Vomiting is a forceful action accomplished by a fierce, downward contraction of the diaphragm. At the same time, the abdominal muscles tighten suddenly against a relaxed upper stomach with an open sphincter. The contents of the stomach are propelled up and out.

Causes of vomiting:
Viral infections, Medications, Seasickness or motion sickness, Migraine headaches, Morning sickness during pregnancy, Food poisoning, Food allergies, Brain tumors,
Chemotherapy in cancer patients, Bulimia, Alcoholism

Yellow Fever
Consult Now Signs & Symptoms of Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a serious viral infection, transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical regions. In mild cases the symptoms are similar to influenza, but serious cases develop a high temperature and may have a series of after effects, such as internal bleeding, kidney failure and meningitis. A classic feature of yellow fever is :-hepatitis, which is the reason for the yellow colouring of the skin (jaundice) and the name of the disease.
:-high fever, generalised symptoms like violent headache, muscular pain, upset stomach and loss of fluid.
The fever dies down after three to four days and the general condition improves. However, in about 15 per cent of cases the fever returns within 24 hours and a dangerous situation develops.